Blogs

How To Open A Computer Center Affiliated With CCERT?

By CCERT 23-May-2020
To open  a computer center minimal requirements are minimum 5 computers, 200sq/ft area, Internet connection and some other basics. Person with IT background, existing computer center, registered society or trust, schools or organization can apply for franchise of CCERT. applicant can also hire instructor for teaching in the computer center. After applying on the ccert portal www.ccert.in/apply you will receive a verification Email and SMS after validating OTP from both email and SMS you will receive an Email and SMS with your login password. after logging in you will be able to see dashboard of franchise panel. Their after you need to upload photo of head of the

What is computer networking

By CCERT 24-May-2020
Computer networking is a group of computer which shair set of common communication protocols over a digital interconneciton for sharing information from a provider or network node.The interconnections between nodes are formed from a broad spectrum of telecommunication network technologies,based on physically wired, optical, and wireless radio-frequency methods that may be arranged in a variety of network topologies.The node of computer can be a personal computer, server, networking hardware or general purpose node. A node is identified by hostname and network address. Hostname serves as a easy to remember label of node and network address locates and identify the node by

What is ip address?

By CCERT 01-Jun-2020
An IP Address (Internet Protocol address) is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. An IP address serves two main functions: host or network interface identification and location addressing. Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) defines an IP address as a 32-bit number. However, because of the growth of the Internet and the depletion of available IPv4 addresses, a new version of IP (IPv6), using 128 bits for the IP address, was standardized in 1998. IPv6 deployment has been ongoing since the mid-2000s. IP addresses are written and displayed in human-readable notations, such as 172.16.254.1 in

What Is Mesh Network?

By CCERT 16-Aug-2020
A mesh network (or simply meshnet) is a local network topology in which the infrastructure nodes that is bridges, switches, and other infrastructure devices connect directly, dynamically and non-hierarchically to as many other nodes as possible and cooperate with one another to efficiently route data from/to clients. Basic principles Mesh networks can relay messages using either a flooding technique or a routing technique. With routing, the message is propagated along a path by hopping from node to node until it reaches its destination. To ensure that all its paths are available, the network must allow for continuous

What is flooding (computer networking)?

By CCERT 16-Aug-2020
Flooding is used in computer networks routing algorithm in which every incoming packet is sent through every outgoing link except the one it arrived on.[1] Flooding is used in bridging and in systems such as Usenet and peer-to-peer file sharing and as part of some routing protocols, including OSPF, DVMRP, and those used in ad-hoc wireless networks (WANETs) Types Uncontrolled Flooding: In uncontrolled flooding each node unconditionally distributes packets to each of its neighbors. Without conditional logic to prevent indefinite recirculation of the same packet, broadcast storms are a hazard. Controlled flooding: Controlled flooding has its own two

What is RAM?

By CCERT 17-Aug-2020
Random-access memory (RAM /ræm/) is a form of computer memory that can be read and changed in any order, typically used to store working data and machine code.A random-access memory device allows data items to be read or written in almost the same amount of time irrespective of the physical location of data inside the memory. In contrast, with other direct-access data storage media such as hard disks, CD-RWs, DVD-RWs and the older magnetic tapes and drum memory, the time required to read and write data items varies significantly depending on their physical locations on the

What is Router(Networking)?

By CCERT 17-Aug-2020
A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. Routers perform the traffic directing functions on the Internet. Data sent through the internet, such as a web page or email, is in the form of data packets. A packet is typically forwarded from one router to another router through the networks that constitute an internetwork (e.g. the Internet) until it reaches its destination node. Operation When multiple routers are used in interconnected networks, the routers can exchange information about destination addresses using a routing protocol. Each router builds

What is Network Topology?

By CCERT 17-Aug-2020
Network topology is the layout, pattern, or organizational hierarchy of the interconnection of network hosts, in contrast to their physical or geographic location. Typically, most diagrams describing networks are arranged by their topology. The network topology can affect throughput, but reliability is often more critical. With many technologies, such as bus networks, a single failure can cause the network to fail entirely. In general, the more interconnections there are, the more robust the network is; but the more expensive it is to install. Common layouts are: Bus network: all nodes are connected to a common medium along this medium. This was the layout used in

What is Passive optical network?

By CCERT 17-Aug-2020
A passive optical network (PON) is a fiber-optic telecommunications technology for delivering broadband network access to end-customers. Its architecture implements a point-to-multipoint topology, in which a single optical fiber serves multiple endpoints by using unpowered (passive) fiber optic splitters to divide the fiber bandwidth among multiple access points. Passive optical networks are often referred to as the "last mile" between an Internet service provider (ISP) and its customers. Components and characteristics A passive optical network consists of an optical line terminal (OLT) at the service provider's central

What is Optical line termination?

By CCERT 17-Aug-2020
An optical line termination (OLT), also called an optical line terminal, is a device which serves as the service provider endpoint of a passive optical network. It provides two main functions: to perform conversion between the electrical signals used by the service provider's equipment and the fiber optic signals used by the passive optical network. to coordinate the multiplexing between the conversion devices on the other end of that network (called either optical network terminals or optical network units). The diagram below depicts an OLT within a fiber-optic network.

What is a data center?

By CCERT 17-Aug-2020
A data center (American English) or data centre (British English) is a building, dedicated space within a building, or a group of buildings used to house computer systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems. Since IT operations are crucial for business continuity, it generally includes redundant or backup components and infrastructure for power supply, data communication connections, environmental controls (e.g. air conditioning, fire suppression) and various security devices. A large data center is an industrial-scale operation using as much

History of data center

By CCERT 17-Aug-2020
Data centers have their roots in the huge computer rooms of the 1940s, typified by ENIAC, one of the earliest examples of a data center. Early computer systems, complex to operate and maintain, required a special environment in which to operate. Many cables were necessary to connect all the components, and methods to accommodate and organize these were devised such as standard racks to mount equipment, raised floors, and cable trays (installed overhead or under the elevated floor). A single mainframe required a great deal of power and had to be cooled to avoid overheating. Security became important – computers were expensive,

What is network switch?

By CCERT 17-Aug-2020
A network switch (also called switching hub, bridging hub, and by the IEEE MAC bridge) is networking hardware that connects devices on a computer network by using packet switching to receive and forward data to the destination device. A network switch is a multiport network bridge that uses MAC addresses to forward data at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. Some switches can also forward data at the network layer (layer 3) by additionally incorporating routing functionality. Such switches are commonly known as layer-3 switches or multilayer

Java

By CCERT 18-Aug-2020
Java is a general-purpose programming language that is class-based, object-oriented, and designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is intended to let application developers write once, run anywhere (WORA), meaning that compiled Java code can run on all platforms that support Java without the need for recompilation. Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode that can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of the underlying computer architecture. The syntax of Java is similar to C and C++, but it has

Python

By CCERT 18-Aug-2020
Python is an interpreted, high-level, general-purpose programming language. Created by Guido van Rossum and first released in 1991, Python's design philosophy emphasizes code readability with its notable use of significant whitespace. Its language constructs and object-oriented approach aim to help programmers write clear, logical code for small and large-scale projects. Python is dynamically typed and garbage-collected. It supports multiple programming paradigms, including structured (particularly, procedural), object-oriented, and functional programming.

PHP (Programming Language)

By CCERT 18-Aug-2020
PHP is a general-purpose scripting language that is especially suited to web development. It was originally created by Danish-Canadian programmer Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994; the PHP reference implementation is now produced by The PHP Group. PHP originally stood for Personal Home Page, but it now stands for the recursive initialism PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor. PHP code is usually processed on a web server by a PHP interpreter implemented as a module, a daemon or as a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) executable. On a web server, the result of the interpreted

C++ (Programming Language)

By CCERT 18-Aug-2020
C++ (/ˌsiːˌplʌsˈplʌs/) is a general-purpose programming language created by Bjarne Stroustrup as an extension of the C programming language, or "C with Classes". The language has expanded significantly over time, and modern C++ now has object-oriented, generic, and functional features in addition to facilities for low-level memory manipulation. It is almost always implemented as a compiled language, and many vendors provide C++ compilers, including the Free Software Foundation, LLVM, Microsoft, Intel, Oracle, and IBM, so it is available on many platforms. C++ was

Objective-C

By CCERT 18-Aug-2020
Objective-C is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language that adds Smalltalk-style messaging to the C programming language. It was the main programming language supported by Apple for macOS, iOS, and their respective application programming interfaces (APIs), Cocoa and Cocoa Touch, until the introduction of Swift in 2014. The language was originally developed in the early 1980s. It was later selected as the main language used by NeXT for its NeXTSTEP operating system, from which macOS and iOS are derived. Portable Objective-C